The first known successful corneal transplantation took place in Olomouc (now Czech Republic) in 1905. The surgeon planted corneas from the patient’s eye, which was about to be removed, to another eye that was treated. In 1912, Vladimir Filatov (1875-1956) successfully performed his first corneal transplantation from a deceased person. Filatov’s breakthrough in ophthalmology even during his own lifetime helped save the eyesight of hundreds of thousands of people. His techniques are still widely used around the world. Besides, Vladimir Filatov developed an effective methodology of skin grafts and other tissues, which are still used in both human and veterinary medicine. In 1936, he founded the Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy in Odesa, Ukraine.